How’s December treating you? In the last post we started taking a look at word formation and we had some nouns to form, how did you manage? Let’s take a look!
- Recommend – Recommendation
- Create – Creator, creation
- Protective – Protector, protection
- Aggressive – Aggression / aggressor
- Train – Trainer, training
- Educate – Education / educator
- Complete – Completion
- Agree – Agreement
- Continue – Continuation / continuity
- Reliable – Reliability
Today we’re taking a look at the formation of adjectives. For that we need to think about the following suffixes: -ing, -ed, -ive, -ful, -less, -able, -ible, -ic, -al, -ful, -less.
But we’ll also need to use negative prefixes, such as im-, un-, in-, il-, ir- , dis- or mis-.
Depending on the word we are forming the adjective from we’ll use one suffix or another. Take a look at the following examples:
- If we want to form an adjective from a noun we can use the following suffixes:
Poison → poisonous
Ambition → Ambitious
Pain → painful / painless
Moment → momentary
Magic → magical
- If we are forming an adjective from a verb we can use:
Remark → remarkable
Access → accessible
Resist → resistant
Attract → attractive
Surprise → surprising / surprised
Regarding prefixes, there aren’t many rules in English but we can use the following when we want to form the opposite of an adjective:
- il- if the adjective starts wih “l”. For example: legal → illegal
- im- if the adjective starts with “m” or “p”. For example: mature → immature , patient → impatient
- ir- if the adjective starts with “r”. For example: regular → irregular
Note that there are exceptions to these rules! For example: loyal → disloyal
Amongst the negative prefixes above there’s one that has a slightly different meaning. Compare the following words and their meanings:
disappear: not appear
immature: not mature
misspell: spell something incorrectly
misunderstand: understand something incorrectly
Remember! When we add the prefix “mis-“ we are saying we’ve done something incorrectly, not that we haven’t done it!
Now, let’s practise!
Form as many adjectives as possible from the following words:
Try to avoid checking a dictionary! We’ll see the answers in our next, very special, post!
Happy December! 🙂